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Aleksandrinsky (Neskuchniy) Palace
U-shaped chambers built in 1756 are at the foundation of the building located at 14 Leninsky Prospekt. This is the main manor house created by P.A. Demidov, the son of the famous Ural industrialist and amateur gardener.
Balcony with columns was placed between risalits of the facade garden. Demidov was buying land from several Moscow landlords and registering plots at the name of his wife. F.I. Soymonov’s house with garden was acquired in 1754. Soymonov was famouse navigator and cartographer. This property rounded the plot, and the estate was taken all the space that lies between the "moat and roads where people go from of the Vestments-position church to the Moscow River."
"Petitioner of nobleman P.A. Demidov and his wife Matryona Antipova" was preserved on April 10, 1756 .They ask a permition to build a "stone chambers." There is also a resolution "allowed to build in accordance with the architect Yakovlev’s plan attached." Courtyard in front of the house was surrounded by stone life- and cast iron fences, cast at Demidov’s factories. Terraced garden with flowers and trees brought from overseas was arranged behind the house on the banks of the Moscow River.
Large property of manufacturer F.I. Serikov was near there. The southern part of this property moved to F.G. Orlov in 1786. Vyazemskys purchased the Serikov’s and Demidov’s properties after the death of Demidov. F.G. Orlov bought it seven years later. Infant daughter of A.G. Orlov Chesmensky, the brother of F.G. Orlov inherited the entire territory in 1796, after the death of A.G. Orlov.
Demidov’s Chambers became the main house. It was rebuilt in 1804 in crushed forms of mature classicism. The central portico on the Rizal of the main facade is peculiar: four pairs of Corinthian columns are supporting decorative wall cut by arches, which extend in a third floor window. Strongly protruding semi-circular balconies were placed on low columns in front of the flat side risalits.
A.A. Orlova sold a huge manor to the Tsar’s Court administration in 1832. It was called Neskuchny garden. Orlova’s house becomes the main building of the estate. The estate was arranged for the wife of the Tsar Nicholas I and was name Aleksandrinsky after her. The latest restructuring of the palace happened at that time. It was led by architects Tyurin and Mironovsky.
The palace became the center of the royal residence, an alley with sculptural groups symbolizing abundance (designed by the sculptor Vitali in 1846) led from the front gate to the palace, opening the front gate.
Freylinsky and Cavalry Corps were decorated the front yard. S mall guardhouse was built next to these corps. Cast-iron fountain fit very well in this ensemble.
It is interesting to know that the fountain appeared here almost a century later, in 1936, when The Main Bureau of the USSR Academy of Sciences moved from Leningrad to the Aleksandrinsky Summer Palace. Earlier fountain stood in Lubyanka Square, where it served as Diversion pool where drinking water was supplied from Mytischinsky plumbing system.
Another interesting episode of palace life is associated with the first post-revolutionary decade. Moscow Museum of furniture was located here during those years. It was described in the book "12 chairs" by Ilf and Petrov. Two main characters of the book Ostap Bender and Kisa Vorobianinov searched for "precious chairs" in this building.