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Andreevskaya almshouse

Yezdakov lane, 1
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In 1803 Moscow Merchant Society addressed a proposal to the Emperor to create an "almshouse".
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Muscovites were passing by Neskuchnyi garden and Andreevskaya almshouse to go to Vorobevka to break a quantity of birch twiglets for the holiday of the Holy Trinity. "We are passing by the gardens, lilac is blooming along the fences. The air is fragrant, May air. Neskuchnyi smells may-lilies. Carts, loaded with grass, are passing by, men are carrying birches, women bear the flowers - for the Trinity celebration", - I. Shmelev wrote.

Andreevskaya almshouse appeared in Moscow in 1803, when Moscow Merchant Society addressed a proposal to the Emperor Alexander I to create an "almshouse" for both sexes in the former Andreevsky monastery in Plennitsy. "Plennitsy" is a bunch of rafts, logs, in other words, "woodpiles".

At that time in 1805 upon the project of the architect F. Sokolov at the expense of the Moscow merchants society on the site of the dilapidated monastery the almshouse bulks were built. Now there is only one bulk of 1805 – the east one, the north bulk is of mid-XIX century, and the south one, built by architect A. Kaminsky, of 1878.

According to the legend, the monastery appeared on this place in the XIII century. However, the name of Andrei Stratilat was given to it only in the XVI century. The temple in honor of the martyr Andrey Stratilat was built here as a memory of the day of deliverance from the invasion of the Crimean Khan Kyzy Girey in 1591. This was also the year of the appearance of Andreevsky monastery.

The heyday of the monastery falls on the XVII century. In 1648, boyar Fyodor Rtishchev built the monastery and founded the academic fraternity. He hunted “30 monks from little-Russia monasteries to teach people Slavic and Greek grammar, rhetoric and philosophy”.

Rtishchev spent days in the palace, but all nights he was spending "in Andreevsky with book wise monks", wrote S.Solovyov. It is "Rtishchevsky Brotherhood" that later became the basis for the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy. This fact was the reason for the beginning of the decline of the Andreevsky monastery.  Monks moved to Kitai-gorod, and the monastery was assigned  to Zaikonospassky Moscow monastery in 1682.

For the first time the monastery was abolished in 1724, at that time simultaneously there were established a school for foundlings – “dishonorable" children, and a place for the "convicts", i.e. a prison. Such neighborhood now seems strange. In six years, at the time of the reign of Empress Anna Ioannovna, the monastery was renewed, but not for a long time. The year of the final abolition of the monastery  is considered to be the 1765th. At the time of Catherine II the former Andreevsky Monastery was given first for the upkeep of the "insane till the moment a special house for them is arranged", and in 1775 a female workhouse with spinning department was opened here.

Finally, in 1803 Andeevskaya merchant almshouse is settled within the walls of the monastery. By 1898 there were 956 alms folks. The trustees of this largest institution of this kind by that time included representatives of the families of Bakhrushin, Korolev, Botkin. Merchants and factory owners donated huge sums to keep the almshouse. N.G. Zubov bequeathed 200 thousand rubles, M.I. Krasheninnikov 100 thousand rubles, the manufacturer S.V. Alekseev - 30 thousand rubles. In the year 1885, on the donation of N.D. Pashkov opened a special department for 40 seats.

On the territory of the almshouse there were three churches: Andreevskaya, Voznesenskaya (Church of the Ascension) and the bell tower of St. John the Theologian. They were also congregational for the residents of the nearby settlements of Moscow - Andreevskaya and Zhivodernaya. In 1900 in Voskresenskaya Church a parochial school  opened, which existed until 1917.

In 1918, the bulks of the almshouse turned into a communal house of the 1st Moscow factory ‘Gosznak’ (national mark). There was a school arranged by workers of Gosznak – it was created in the temple of the holy martyr Andrew Stratilat. The Church of the Resurrection of Christ has been allocated for the club. In a strange way Bogoslovskaya church was not closed and the church service took place here till the end of the 30s.

In 1960s there was the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Standards, measures and instruments, the bulks of the almshouse remained residential ones. The final resettlement happened only in 1980, when the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Meteorological Service was placed here.

In 1996, the complex of Andreevsky monastery was transferred to the Russian Orthotics Church for the unlimited use.


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