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Moscow hospital (now the Main Military Clinical Hospital named after NN Burdenko) was founded in Lefortovo by Peter I in 1706. The first Russian school of medicine and surgery opened there at the same time. Personal physician of Peter I, a graduate of the University of Leiden Nicholas Bidloo leaded the hospital.
Initially, the hospital consisted of one Dutch-style stone building, the church of the Resurrection and thirty wooden buildings on the Jauza river shore. There where an anatomical theater, an alchemist chamber, a pharmacy, apartments for students, student's rooms and rooms for patients. Botanical Garden with medicinal plants was planted nearby.
The main building was topped with octagonal wooden dome with carved gilt statue of Mercy. Hospital even had its own theater in the Petrine era. The first Russian plays and interludes were produced by students of Medical-Surgical School.
Architect D. Ukhtomsky rebuilt and enlarged complex by the end of the 1750s. Stone two-storey building of the church body was built at that time. Clinic for mentally ill opened there for the first time in Russia.
The Hospital has declined during Catherine II time. Fire destroyed the right half of the main building and the church at the end of 1763. Medical buildings collapsed so much they wanted to dismantle the military hospital and build elsewhere in 1764. Hospital team defended the place and maintained buildings by themselves.
The construction project of new stone buildings created by Moscow architect I. Egotov was approved during Paul I time. Main building was erected in 1797-1802 and hospital retained its appearance to the present day. In the newly built church housing the throne of the most ancient church of the hospital was re-consecrated to the names of apostles Peter and Paul.
Hospital is an ensemble of the Empire era, one of the few survivors of the 1812 Moscow fire. Some of the wooden buildings were restored in stone in 1818-30. The brick chapel was rebuilt and used for the funeral of the dead, preserved to this day.
Alexander I ordered to build the transition that will connect separate cases in order to expand the chambers to fit 1800 patients during his visit in the hospital in 1823. The architectural appearance of the hospital did not change significantly since then.
Only the additional chapel of the church of Our Lady of the Holy Virgin in the main building was consecrated after the Russian- Turkish war of 1877-78. In 1917 the church was transferred to one of the branches of the hospital.
The hospital was named after the founder of the national neurosurgery, academician NN Burdenko in 1946. Classical ensemble of the hospital was preserved during the construction of new buildings 1930 -90- ies. All buildings of XVIII-XIX centuries have the status of objects of cultural heritage of federal importance.
'Assuage my sorrows', sisterhood of mercyGospitalnaya Square, 2, bld.2
The sisterhood was originally established as a nursing school, training women to become nurses (or, as they were known back then, sisters of mercy) to provide aid to soldiers both on the battlefield and in military hospitals.