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L. N. Tolstoy


Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy (August 28 (September 9) 1828, the estate of Yasnaya Polyana in Tula Province, Russia - November 7 (20) 1910, the station Astapovo (now Leo Tolstoy station) Ryazan province, Russia) - Russian writer and educator, military officer who served in the Caucasus and took an active part in the Crimean War. Awarded the Order of St. Anne's 4-th degree with the inscription "For Bravery" and medals, the founder of the religious and moral teachings - of Tolstoy, Count, corresponding member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences (1873), Honorary academician in belles-lettres (1900).

Born into a noble family of Maria Nikolaevna, nee Princess Volkonskaya and Count Nikolai Tolstoy in the estate of Yasnaya Polyana in Tula Province Krapivenskaya County fourth child. A happy marriage of his parents became the prototype of the characters in the novel "War and Peace" - Princess Mary and Nicholas Rostov. Parents died early. Education of the future writer was engaged Tatiana Yergolsky, a distant relative, education - tutors: German Reselman and French Saint-Thomas, who became a character of writer’s novels. In 13, the future writer and his family moved to a hospitable house father's sister PI Yushkova in Kazan.

In 1844, Leo Tolstoy entered the Imperial Kazan University, the Faculty of Philosophy Eastern literature. After the first year did not pass the exam and transitional transferred to the School of Law, where he studied for two years, having plunged in secular entertainment. Leo Tolstoy, by nature shy and ugly, has acquired a reputation in a secular society "getting smart on" the happiness of death, eternity, love, even though he wanted to shine. And in 1847 he left the university and moved to Yasnaya Polyana with the intent to engage in science and "achieve the highest degree of perfection in music and painting."

In 1849, at his estate was opened the first school for peasant children, where he taught Fock Demidovich, his land, a former musician. Who studied there Yermil Bazykin said: "We, the boys were about 20, was a teacher Focka Demidovich, the serf, former musician. When his father LN Tolstoy, he performed the duties of a musician. The old man was good. Taught us the alphabet, counting, sacred history. Come to us and Tolstoy worked with us, showing a certificate. I went through the day, two, or even every day. Teacher zavsegda he ordered us not to offend ... "

1851 under the influence of his elder brother Nicholas Leo goes to the Caucasus, have already started to write "Childhood", and in the fall becomes a cadet in the 4th Battery of the 20th Artillery Brigade, stationed in the Cossack village Starogladovskaya on the Terek River. There he finished the first part of "childhood" and sent to the journal "Contemporary" his editor Nekrasov. September 18, 1852 the manuscript was published with great success.

Leo Tolstoy served three years in the Caucasus, and having the right to the honorable George Cross for bravery, "conceded" his fellow-soldier, as giving a lifetime pension. At the beginning of the Crimean War of 1853-1856. transferred to the Danube army, participated in the battles of Oltenitse, the siege of Silistra, the defense of Sevastopol. Then write a story "Sevastopol in December 1854," was read by the Emperor Alexander II, who commanded the preserve of a talented officer.

In November 1856 already recognized and well-known writer leaves the military service and went to travel around Europe.

In 1862, Leo Tolstoy marries a seventeen year old Sofia Andreevna Bers. In their marriage were born 13 children, five died in infancy, were to write a novel "War and Peace" (1863-1869) and "Anna Karenina" (1873-1877) recognized the great works.

In the 1880s. Leo Tolstoy experienced a strong crisis that led to the denial of official government and its institutions, awareness of the inevitability of death, faith in God and the creation of his teaching - Tolstoyism. He lost interest in his usual aristocratic life, he began to have thoughts of suicide and the need to live right, be vegetarian, educate and do physical labor - he plowed, sewed boots, taught children in school. In 1891, publicly renounced the copyright for his literary works written after 1880

During the 1889-1899 biennium. Leo Tolstoy wrote the novel "Resurrection", whose plot is based on a real court case and scathing article about the system of government - on this basis, the Holy Synod of Count Leo Tolstoy excommunicated from the Orthodox Church and anathematized in 1901.

October 28 (November 10) 1910 Leo Tolstoy secretly left Yasnaya Polyana, going on a journey without a specific plan for their moral and religious ideas of recent years, accompanied by a doctor DP Makovitsky. On the road, cold, sick of pneumonia and had to get off the train at the station Astapovo (now station Leo Tolstoy Lipetsk region). Leo Tolstoy died on November 7 (20), 1910 in the house of the station manager II Ozolin and buried in Yasnaya Polyana.